ስለ ኑዛዜ ከውርስ ሕግና ከሰበር ውሳኔዎች ጋር ተገናዝቦ የቀረበ

 

 መግቢያ

የኢትዮጵያ የውርስ ሕግ ኑዛዜ ማለት ምን ማለት እንደሆነ የሰጠው ትርጉም ባይኖርም አንድ ኑዛዜ ህጋዊ ውጤት እንዲኖረው ማሟላት የሚገባቸውን መስፈርቶች ምን ምን እንደሆኑ በዝርዝር የሚያስቀምጡ የሕግ ድንጋጌዎችን ከፍትሐብሔር ህግ ቁጥር 857 እስከ 908 ተደንግጎ እናገኘዋለን፡፡

በዚህ ጽሁፍ ኑዛዜ በምን አግባብ ቢደረግ በሕግ ዘንድ ውጤት ይኖረዋል፤በውርስ ሕጋችን ላይ የተቀመጡት የኑዛዜ አደራረግ ስርዓቶች አስገዳጅነታቸው እስከምን ድርስ እንደሆነና ኑዛዜ በፍርድ ቤት ቢጸድቅ ሊያስገኝ የሚችለው ውጤትና ባለመጽደቁ የሚያመጣው ተጽእኖ ምን እንደሆነ ከውርስ ሕግ እና አስገጋጅ ከሆኑ የፌዴራል ጠቅላይ ፍርድ ቤት የሰበር ውሳኔዎች አንጻር  በአጭሩ ዳሰሳ ለማድርግ ተሞክሯል፡፡ 

ለኑዛዜ ዋጋ መኖር አስፈላጊ የሆኑ የስረ ነገር ሁኔታዎች    

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The Minimum Wage System in Ethiopia: a Comparative Analysis

 


Abstract

A minimum wage is the lowest wage that employers may legally pay to workers. The purpose of minimum wages is to protect workers against unduly low pay and they are essentially labour market interventions used by governments either as instruments of political macroeconomics or as social tools. Governments introducing minimum wage policy and legislations basically aim to protect low-income workers through the introduction of minimum wages based on country specific factors. In case of Ethiopia the new labour proclamation which is entered into force in 5th September, 2019 for the first time provide establishment of minimum wage board that will periodically revise minimum wages based on different factors. Since the new minimum wage board in Ethiopia is a new conception it is not perfect in addressing all issues and problems that exist in the implementation of the purpose intended by the government. So this article has employed different sources and explores the minimum wage system in Ethiopia special focusing on new labour proclamations by consulting other countries better experience in tackling those unseen problem and for having strong minimum wage system in the country.

 

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Legal Effects of Unregistered Property Interests on Third Parties: What is the Position of Ethiopian Law?

If you have an interest on a property and this interest is registered, it will have legal effects on third parties. The idea is the third party knew or should have known of a prior interest registered before the acquisition of his own interest. Government enhances certainty and security of land transactions by providing a registry system. The purpose of this registry system is to register anyone who has prescribed interests (such as mortgage) on a land so that third parties would have a chance to inspect the registry and decide whether to make another transaction. There is of course a practical question of as to whether the current registry system provides such service to inquirers. Leaving this aside, another question is what if the interest is not registered because the law does not require such interest to be registered in the first place or because of other reasons. Consider the following:

 

X owns a building part of which is rented to Y on the basis of a written but unregistered contract for a period of 15 years. Y has undertaken to pay the rent quarterly in advance. X developed a business idea and borrowed money from Easymoney Share Company by providing his building as collateral. The contract of mortgage is registered. Now that X defaulted in paying back the sum he borrowed, Easymoney plans to foreclose the building. The question is now as to whether Easymoney or any purchaser of the building will have the right to evict Y?

 

The above set of facts presents two competing interests. On the one hand, there is the property interest of the bank which did not know of the existence of this long-term contract of rent. On the other hand, you have the contractual interest of Y which has planned all his business on the understanding that he would have the right to the use of the building for the agreed period of time. It is true that this contract was not registered but it is also true that the law does not require such contracts to be registered. In a recent case, the Cassation Division of the Federal Supreme Court decided that Article 1723(1) does not include contracts of leases (Rental Houses Administration Agency v Sosina Asfaw [2005] File Number 15992). Article 1723(1) provides that "a contract creating or assigning rights in ownership or bare ownership on an immovable or an usufruct, servitude or mortgage of an immovable shall be in writing and registered with a court or notary". It should be noted that Article 1723 is concerned with the validity of the contract between the parties and not with its effect on third parties. Therefore, it can be argued that contracts of lease for whatever period of time could be made in any form and will still be valid. The question relates to the effect of contracts of lease on third parties. In this regard, Article 2899(1) provides that "leases for a period exceeding five years shall not affect third parties until they are entered in the registers of immovable property at the place where the immovable is situate". It follows therefore that even if oral or written but unregistered contracts of lease are binding on the parties, their effect on third parties depend on the period of time they are made and whether they are registered. If the lease is made for a period of time exceeding five years, it should be registered for it to have affect third parties. In the above example, the contract of lease is for a period of 15 years but not registered. In such cases, Article 2899(2) provides that the contract of lease affects third parties only for five years from the day when the the third party has registered his/her right on the immovable. It follows therefore that the contract of lease between X and Y affects Easymoney for a period of five years. If on the other hand, the period of time for which the contracts of lease is made is not certain and the contract of lease is not registered, Article 2933(1) and Article 2899(3) provide that this contract is deemed to have been made for indeterminate period of time. Assume in the above case the period of time for which the contract of lease is made is uncertain; in such cases, Easymoney can presume this contract to have been made for indeterminate period of time. The question is what will be the effect of that presumption? According to Article 2966, contracts of leases for an indeterminate periods of time can be terminated by giving default notice. To conclude, it can be said that contracts of lease is binding on the parties in whatever form and for however it is made. But is the effect on third parties depends on two factors:

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Legal updates on federal court establishment proclamation, proclamation number 1234/2021

 

Introduction

The federal court proclamation no 25/96 its amendment, which has been in force for many years, is repealed and replaced by the federal courts' proclamation number 1234/2021.  When we see in view of the existing proclamation, the new law introduced new elements. In these short notes, we will briefly explore the new features of the proclamation and the reason behind the improvements of the proclamation to its current content.

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Brief summary major reforms introduced by Movable Property Security Rights Proclamation, No.1147/2019

 

Introduction

Before the enactment of movable property security right proclamation, Ethiopian movable security right law is ultimately unsatisfactory because it is fragmented, and contained in four different pieces of legislation: The Civil and Commercial Codes, the Business Mortgage Proclamation, the Proclamation to Provide for a Warehouse Receipts System (Warehouse Receipts Proclamation), and the Capital Goods Leasing Business Proclamation. Under this system, security rights in many movable assets are not registered.

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Updates on the recent administrative procedure proclamation no 1183/2020

 

Before the enactments of the Federal Administrative Procedure Proclamation, there is a gap in the Ethiopian legal regime due to the absence of administrative procedure law. This is a neglected subject both by the legal academia and practitioners. It is very difficult and challenges to talk about the history of administrative law in Ethiopia. Administrative law is still not well developed, and it is an area of law characterized by the lack of legislative reform.

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ያለደረሰኝ ግብይት የማከናወን ወንጀል

 

 

መግቢያ

የዚህ ጽሑፍ ዋና ዓላማ ያለደረሰኝ ግብይት የማከናወን ወንጀል ላይ መሠረታዊ የሆነ መረዳት እንዲኖር ማድረግ እና ያለደረሰኝ ግብይት ከማከናወን ወንጀል ጋር በተያያዘ እየቀረቡ ያሉ አንዳንድ ማብራሪያዎች (commentaries) ላይ የሚስተዋሉትን ግድፈቶች ማቃናት አስፈላጊ ሆኖ በመገኘቱ ነው፡፡

ያለደሰኝ ግብይት ወንጀል የኢትዮጵያ የታክስ ሕግ ወንጀል አካል ሆኖ የተደነገገው በ2001 ዓ.ም ሲሆን ይህም በአዋጅ 609/2001 አንቀጽ 50 (ሐ) እና 50 (መ) 2 መሠረት ነው፡፡ ምንም እንኳ ጥቂት ለውጥ ቢደረግባቸውም እነዚህ አንቀፆች በታክስ አስተዳደር አዋጅ 983/2008 አንቀጽ 120/1 እና 131(1)(ለ) ላይ ከተደነገገውና ያለደረሰኝ ግብይትን የወንጀል ተግባር አድርጎ ከሚደነግጉት አንቀፆች ጋር የጎላ የይዘት ልዩነት የላቸውም፡፡

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ፍላጎት ላጣው መራጭ ምን ይደረግ?

 

ለፌዴራል እና ለክልል ሕግ አውጪ ምክር ቤቶች የሕዝብ እንደራሴዎችን ለመምረጥ የሚከናወነው መጪው አገር አቀፍ ምርጫ ከተደጋጋሚ መስተጓጎሎች በኋላ የድምጽ መስጫ ዕለቱ ሰኔ 14 ቀን 2013 ዓ.ም እንዲደረግ ቀን ተቆርጦለት ዝግጅቶቹ ቀጥለዋል፡፡ ይህ ምርጫ ከዓመት በፊት ማለትም በሕገ-መንግሥታዊ ትርጉም ከመራዘሙ በፊት ካለው ጊዜ ጋር ሲነጻጸር፤ በትግራዩ ጦርነት፣ በሰላምና ደህንነት ስጋቶቹ፣ የተዳከመው የፖለቲካ ፓርቲዎች እንቅስቃሴ፣ የተጽዕኖ ፈጣሪ ፖለቲከኞች እስር፣ የኮሮና ቫይረስ ስርጭት እና የውጪ አገራት ጫና ያደበዘዘው ይመስላል፡፡ እንዲህም ሆኖ ግን፤ ድህረ-2010 የታዩት የሕግ እና የተቋማት ማሻሻያዎች፣ አንጻራዊ የፖለቲካ ፓርቲዎች፣ የመገናኛ ብዙኃን እና የሲቪክ ምሕዳሮች ስፋት የዘንድሮውን ምርጫ በጉጉት ተጠባቂ እንዲሆን ማድረጋቸው አልቀረም፡፡

ምርጫ 2013 የኢትዮጵያ ብሔራዊ ምርጫ ቦርድ የምርጫ ጊዜ ሰሌዳውን ይፋ ካደረገበት ወርኃ ጥር ጀምሮ እስካሁን ድረስ በርከት ያሉ የቅድመ-ምርጫ ተግባራት ተከናውነውበታል። ከእነዚህ መካከል የምርጫ ቁሳቁሶች ዝግጅት፣ የምርጫ አስፈጻሚዎች ምልመላ፣ የእጩዎች ምዝገባ፣ የመራጮች ትምህርት እና የመራጮች ምዝገባ ተጠቃሽ ክንውኖች ናቸው።

በእነዚህ ወሳኝ የቅድመ-ምርጫ ክንውኖች ውስጥ የተነሱት እና በቀሩት ጊዜያትም ሊነሱ የሚችሉት በተለይም የሕግ ጉዳዮች የዘንድሮውን ምርጫ የተለየ መሆንነት አጉልተው የሚያሳዩ ናቸው፡፡ ለአብነት እንኳ የፖለቲካ ፓርቲዎች ምዝገባ ያስከተለው ውዝግብ፣ ከፌዴራሉና ከሌሎቹ ክልሎች ምክር ቤት አባላት ምርጫ ቀን ተለይቶ የነበረው የአዲስ አበባ እና ድሬዳዋ ምክር ቤቶች ምርጫ ጉዳይ፣ የአፋር እና የሶማሌ ክልሎች የምርጫ ጣቢያዎች ውዝግብ፣ የሐረሪ ክልል ብሔራዊ ጉባኤ አባላት ምርጫ እና አነጋጋሪው የእጩዎች ምዝገባ የፍርድ ቤቶች ክርክር የዘንድሮው ምርጫ በቀጣይ ለሚከናወኑ ምርጫዎች አስቀምጦ የሚያልፈው ልምምድ ቀላል የሚባል አለመሆኑን የሚያስገነዝቡ ናቸው፡፡

ወሳኝ የምርጫ ባለድርሻ አካላት ከሆኑት ልዩ ልዩ ተቋማት መካከል ምርጫ ቦርድ፣ ፍርድ ቤቶች እና የሲቪክ ማኅበረሰብ ድርጅቶች በእስካሁኖቹ የምርጫ ሂደቶች ያሳዩት  ጥረት የምንመኘውን ነጻ፣ ትክክለኛ እና ተዓማኒ ምርጫ ወደፊት ለማድረግ እጅግ ጠቃሚ ናቸው። በዚያው ልክ ግን በሒደቶቹ ውስጥ የታዩ የጎሎ ክፍተቶች የዘንድሮውን ጨምሮ በቀጣይ ለሚደረጉትም ምርጫዎች የራሳቸው አሉታዊ ተጽዕኖ ማሳደራቸው አይቀርም።

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በማሻሻያ አዋጅ 1160/2011 በጉምሩክ ወንጀሎች ላይ የተደረጉ ማሻሻያዎች

 

                                                                 

አዋጅ ቁጥር-1160/2011 የጉምሩክ አዋጅ 859/2006 ማሻሻያ አዋጅ ሲሆን በዚህ አዋጅ የጉምሩክ አዋጅ 859/2006 ውስጥ ባሉት አንዳንድ ድንጋጌዎች ላይ ማሻሻያ ተደርጓል፡፡ ከተደረጉ ማሻሻያዎች በዋናነት የሚጠቀሰው በአከራካሪ የወንጀል ድንጋጌዎች ላይ የተደረገው ማሻሻያ ሲሆን በዚህ ፅሁፍ በማሻሻያ አዋጁ የተሸሩ፣የተሸሻሉና እንደ አዲስ የተካተቱ የወንጀል ድንጋጌዎች አጠር ባለመልኩ ተዳሰዋል፡፡

 

1. የኮንትሮባንድ ወንጀል፡-

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በመመሪያ ቁጥር 67/2013 በጨው ላይ የሰፈረውን ድንጋጌ ከኤክሳይዝ ታክስ አዋጅ ቁጥር 1186/2011 አንጻር የተደረገ አጭር ዳሰሳ

 

መግቢያ

አዲሱ የኤክሳይዝ ታክስ አዋጅ ቁጥር 1186/2012 እየተሰራበት መሆኑ ይታወቃል፡፡ ይህንን አዋጅ ለማስፈጸም የኢፌዴሪ የገንዘብ ሚኒስቴር ስለኤክሳይዝ ታክስ አዋጅ አፈፃፀም መመሪያ ቁጥር 67/2013 ጸድቆ ከጥቅምት 6 ቀን 2013 ዓ.ም ጀምሮ በሥራ ላይ ይገኛል፡፡ በመሆኑም የዚህ ጽሁፍ ዓላማ በመመሪያው አንቀጽ 38 ላይ በጨው ላይ የሚከፈል የኤክሳይዝ ታክስን በተመለከተ የሰፈረውን ድንጋጌ ከአዋጁ አጠቃላይ ይዘትና መንፈስ አንጻር በጥቂቱ ለመዳሰስ ነው፡፡

 

1. በጨው ምርትና ግብይት ላይ ወሳኝ ባለድርሻ አካላት

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