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ARTICLE REVIEW - Seyoum Yohannes, the Normative Basis for Decision on the Merits in Commercial Arbitration: the Extent of Party Autonomy

Seyoum Yohannes, the Normative Basis for Decision on the Merits in Commercial Arbitration: the Extent of Party Autonomy, Mizan Law Review, Vol. 10, No.2, December 2016, p. 341 - 365 (You may download this article from Here)

The arbitration agreement is an indispensable precondition for domestic and international commercial arbitration.  This is due to the fact that an arbitration contract is a process through which parties in dispute freely appoint their own private judge in lieu of a state judge to settle their dispute.  Nonetheless, whether the parties are at liberty to set all matters as they like, including the law(s) that will be applied to their case, is an issue. On the other hand, whether the arbitrators could settle as per the principle of laws or according to law and whether they have full autonomy to revise or rewrite the arbitration agreement to settle the parties’ dispute is also an issue. Seyoum’s article examines Ethiopian laws from hereinabove mentioned issues’ perspective. 

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የወንጀል ምርመራና የፍርድ ቤቶች ሚና

መግቢያ

አንድን የወንጀል ተግባር በሕግ አግባብ አጣርቶና መርምሮ ወደ ፍርድ ሂደቱ ለማስገባትና ውሳኔ ለማሰጠት አስቀድመው ከሚከናወኑ ዐበይት ተግባራት መካከል የመጀመሪያው የወንጀል የምርመራ ሥራ ነው። በመሰረታዊነት የወንጀል የምርመራ ተግባርን የማከናወን ኃላፊነትና ሥልጣን የፖሊስና የዐቃቤ ሕግ መሆኑ ቢታወቅም በብዙ የሂደቱ ደረጃዎች ፍርድ ቤቶች ያላቸው ሚና ላቅ ያለ መሆኑም የሚታወቅ ነው። መርማሪ ፖሊስ ተጠርጣሪውን በሕግ አግባብ መያዙን፣ ከያዘውም በኋላ በሕግ በተቀመጠው ጊዜ ውስጥ ፍርድ ቤት ማቅረቡን፣ የአቆያየት ሁኔታውን በተመለከተም በአግባቡ አይቶና መርምሮ ተገቢ ናቸው ያላቸውን ሕጋዊ ትዕዛዛትና የማስረጃ አሰባሰብ ጉዳዮችን (ለምሳሌ፡- የቀዳሚ ምርመራ፣ የመያዣና የብርበራ ትዕዛዛት…) ኹሉ በበላይነት በመምራትና በመቆጣጠር የግለሰቦችንና የህዝብን መብትና ጥቅም የማስከበር ኃላፊነት አለባቸው።

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የማዕድን ሥራዎች ፈቃድ የተሰጠው ሰው እና በኢትዮጵያ ነዋሪ ያልሆነ ንዑስ-ሥራ ተቋራጭ የግብር ግዴታ

መግቢያ

ማንኛውም ገቢ የሚያገኝ ሰው በፌዴራል የገቢ ግብር አዋጅ ቁጥር 979/2008 እና በታክስ አስተዳደር አዋጅ ቁጥር 983/2008 መሰረት ግብር የመክፈል ኃላፊነት አለበት፡፡[1] በሌላ በኩል የኢትዮጵያ ነዋሪ የሆነ ሰው ወይም የኢትዮጵያ ነዋሪ ያልሆነ በቋሚነት የሚሰራ ድርጅት፤ በኢትዮጵያ ነዋሪ ላልሆነ ሰው የትርፍ ድርሻ፣ የንዑስ ሥራ ተቋራጭ፣ የወለድ፣ የሮያሊቲ፣ የሥራ አመራር፣ የቴክኒካል፣ የመድን አረቦን፣ ወደ ውጭ አገር የሚላክ ትርፍ፣ እንዲሁም የሌሎች ገቢዎች ክፍያ ሲፈጽሙ ከጠቅላላ ክፍያው ላይ በግብር ሕጉ መጣኔ መሰረት ግብር ቀንሰው መያዝ እንዳለባቸው ተደንግጓል፡፡[2] በተመሳሳይ በኢትዮጵያ ነዋሪ የሆነ ሰው ወይም በኢትዮጵያ ነዋሪ ያልሆነ በቋሚነት የሚሰራ ድርጅት ከመቀጠር ከሚገኝ ገቢ፣ ከትርፍ ድርሻ ወይም ካልተከፋፈለ ትርፍ፣ ከወለድ፣ ከሮያሊቲ፣ እና ከሌላ በአገር ውስጥ ከሚፈጸም ክፍያ ላይ በግብር ሕጉ መጣኔ መሰረት ግብር ቀንሰው መያዝ አለባቸው፡፡[3]

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Creating Economic opportunities for refugees: Why refugees in Ethiopia are refusing their right to work and integration?

1. The right to work of refugees

 The right to work is one of the fundamental human rights recognized by different human rights instruments. The 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) under its Article 23 declared the right to work as a fundamental human right.

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A dreamless dreamer: should pauper proceeding be allowed in Arbitration proceeding?

The legislator who, on the plea of checking litigation, or on any other plea, exacts of a working man as a preliminary to his obtaining justice, what that working man is unable to pay, does refuse to him a hearing, does, in a word, refuse him justice, and that as effectually and completely as it is possible to refuse it. - Jeremy Bentham (A Protest Against Law Taxes)

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Snapshot Review of Imperative Necessity and challenges for Implementation IHL: Part Two

Failure to implement IHL is a central problem in contemporary armed conflict laws in general and Ethiopia in particular. However, it must be noted that difficulties regarding securing compliance are not unique to the law of armed conflict but also an issue in international law. This problem by large is related to the lack of a central enforceable organ that looks after the implementation of those laws.

Although the lack of a central enforceable organ is one of the central problems with the implementation of international law in general and IHL in particular, there are other inimitable reasons that are typically credited for the failure of IHL being observed. These are the very nature of armed conflict, the inapplicability, and inefficiency of the international mechanism of implementation. These typical features will be explained in the following pages.  

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Snapshot Review of Imperative Necessity and challenges for Implementation IHL: Part One

The implementation of the International Humanitarian Law (hereinafter referred to as IHL) mainly rests upon the effort of the state parties. International humanitarian law is currently accepted by every country in the world. Still, the absence of a comprehensive and meticulous mechanism to enforce the rules embodied in IHL is an Achilles’ heel fuelled by the very nature of IHL, which is meant to regulate the issues that arise out of armed conflict.

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Permanency Rule Dilemma To Designate Grave Willful Injury Crime Of Ethiopian Criminal Code Of 2004: The Practice In Oromia Regional State

‘Write Your Injuries in Dust and Your Benefits in Marble’ – Benjamin Franklin.

Abstract

Though it needs statically documented data to conclude so, the practice demonstrates that bodily injury crime is one of the most frequently committed crimes. Nonetheless, there is no common worldwide standard to define what constitutes bodily injury crime and to classify bodily injury crime, particularly to grave bodily injury crime and common willful injury crime.

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Elucidating Some Legal Insufficiency Of Prosecutors and Police Liaison For Criminal Investigation In Ethiopia: The Case Of Oromia Regional State

Abstract

22 July 1991 to 21 August 1995, and 21 August 1995 to present by Transitional Charter and Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE) constitution, respectively, Ethiopia adopted a federal system and structured the regions along ethnic lines. And Oromia Regional State (ORS) is Ethiopia's most populous and largest region. 

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The Penumbra of Wish-Washy Stands of FDRE Cassation Division on Corporate Criminal Liability Model of Ethiopia: Case Analysis

Introduction

This commentary analyses two self-contradictory criminal cases decision of Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE)Supreme Court cassation division (hereinafter referred as the division) that have equal legal value on all subordinate courts of Federal as well as Regional States to date. The central issue of these cases was the model of corporate criminal liability in Ethiopian criminal justice system.

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